Basic knowledge of mineral processing

1. Classification of solid minerals

Ferrous metal minerals (copper, lead, zinc, nickel, aluminum, magnesium, cobalt, tungsten, tin, molybdenum, bismuth, Gong, antimony, titanium, vanadium).

Ferrous metal minerals ( iron , manganese , chromium ).

Precious metal minerals (gold, silver , platinum , palladium, etc.).

Rare metals (lithium, beryllium, rubidium, cesium, tantalum, zirconium, hafnium, strontium).

Rare earth metal minerals ( 镧 , 铈 , 钪, etc.).

Radioactive minerals ( uranium , thorium ).

Chemical raw materials non-metallic minerals ( phosphorus , sulfur, potassium, salt, magnesium salt , boron , sodium nitrate , trona , art nitrate, iodine , bromine , arsenic , barite , alum , ground wax, etc.).

Metallurgical auxiliary raw materials ( magnesia , refractory clay , silica , dolomite , limestone, fluorite , kyanite minerals, etc.).

Building materials and other non-metallic minerals ( asbestos , graphite , gypsum , talc , wollastonite , marble , vermiculite , zeolite , diatomaceous earth , diamond , mica , natural asphalt , crystal, etc.).

Fuel minerals ( coal , peat , oil shale, etc.).

Second, the common non-ferrous metal mineral industry requirements

Copper mine

Industrial mining grade: 0.4~0.5% sulfide ore 0.7% oxidized ore.

Copper concentrates contain copper grades: 8 to 28% individually up to 30%.

By copper-rich grade of greater than 5% or more by dressing may, directly mixed with copper concentrate smelting.

The content of harmful components in copper concentrate: arsenic <0.3% fluorine <0.1%.

Zinc <6% Magnesium oxide <5%

Lead ore

Industrial mining grade: sulfide ore 0.7 to 1.0 (lead oxidation rate <10%)

Mixed mine 1.0~1.5 (lead oxidation rate 10 to 30%)

Oxidized ore 1.5~2.0 (lead oxidation rate >30%)

Industrial grade requirements for lead-zinc mining areas in China:

Sulfide ore: Pb+Zn 4~5%

Mixed ore: Pb+Zn 6~8%

Oxidized ore: Pb+Zn 8~10%

Lead concentrate requirements: from 40% to 70% in seven grades.

Main impurity requirements: Cu<3%~1.5%



Al 2 O 3 <4%


Zinc mine

Industrial mining grade: sulfide ore 1.0~2.0

Mixed mine 2.0~3.0

Oxidized ore 3.0~6.0

Zinc concentrate 40% to 59% divided into nine

The main impurity content requirement is not greater than:

Cu 2.0~0.8 Pb 3.0~1.0 Fe 16~6.0

As 0.5~0.2 SiO 2     7.0 to 3.0 F 0.2


Generally, alumina is extracted from bauxite and then electrolyzed into aluminum metal by alumina. The industrial grade requirements of bauxite are:

Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 ≥ 3.6

Al 2 O 3 ≥55%

According to the Fe 2 O 3 content (15 to 3%), it is classified into a high iron type → a low iron type.

The sulfur content (0.8 to 0.3%) is classified into a high sulfur type to a low sulfur type.

Nickel ore

Industrial grade: 0.3~0.5% sulfide ore

Oxidized ore 1%

Generally according to the nickel content, it is divided into three grades.

Special rich mine ≥3% can be directly smelted

Rich ore ≥1% need beneficiation

Lean ore 0.3~0.5% need beneficiation

1. Nickel concentrate products are divided into three grades

First level Ni≥5%

Secondary Ni≥4%

Three levels of Ni ≥ 3%

2. High ice nickel technical standards:

High-ice nickel is an intermediate product in the nickel-making process. It is a complex mixture of copper-nickel sulfide and a small amount of other metals. It is the raw material for electrolytic nickel.

Three grades

No. 1 high ice nickel Ni is not less than 50% Fe is not more than 4%

No. 2 high ice nickel Ni is not less than 45% Fe is not more than 4%

No. 3 high ice nickel Ni is not less than 40% Fe is not more than 5%

3. Nickel bismuth concentrate technical conditions

The high-nickel nickel is obtained from the beneficiation of nickel ore for nickel electrolysis and nickel powder production.

Divided into two levels

Primary Ni≥65% Cu≤3.5%

Secondary Ni≥62% Cu≤5%

Cobalt mine

Industrial grade: cobalt sulfide (and cobalt arsenide) ≥0.03~0.6%

Cobalt mine ≥0.5

Generally, cobalt is mainly associated with copper-nickel ore, vanadium-titanium magnetite, and cobalt-manganese ore. The ore with good smelting performance has a cobalt grade of more than 0.01%, and the cobalt concentrate (such iron ore) has a grade of 0.2%, which is valuable.

Cobalt-sulfur concentrate Co is not less than 0.20 to 0.45%

S is not more than 25 to 35%


Industrial grade: WO 3 0.12 ~ 0.20%.

Grade wolframite concentrate WO 3 content of not less than 68%.

Scheelite concentrate grade WO 3 content of not less than 70%.

The WO 3 content of the first-grade black and white tungsten concentrate is not less than 65%.

The main impurity content is S, P, As, etc.

Iron ore

1. Steelmaking to iron ore

Ore type TFe Sio 2 S P Cu Pb Zn As Sn

Magnetite ore ≥56 ≤8 ≤0.1 ≤0.1≤0.2 ≤0.04

Or hematite ore 60 13 0.15 0.15 0.2

2. Iron ore for iron making

Ore type TFe Sio 2 S P Other harmful impurities (%)

Magnetite ore hematite ore ≥50 ≤0.3 ≤0.25 Cu≤0.1~0.2

Limonite ore, siderite ore ≥50≤0.3≤0.25 Pb≤0.1

Self-fluxing ore ≤10 ≤0.3≤0.25

Zn≤0.05~1 Sn≤0.08 F≤1.0 As≤0.04~0.07

3. Need to choose the ore industrial grade:

Magnetite 25% hematite 28-30%

Siderite 25% limonite 30%

Gold and silver

Industrial grade: Au 3~5g/t

Ag 100~120g/t

Third, the main processing technology of minerals

1. Flotation

2. Re-election

3. magnetic separation

4. Elective selection

5. Chemical beneficiation (hydrometallurgy)

Mineral processing case introduction:

Cu Pb Zn re-election process


Priority copper selection

↓ ↓

Copper concentrate lead and zinc separation

↓ ↓

Lead concentrate zinc concentrate (or tailings)

Fourth, sample preparation and inspection

1. Determination of the minimum weight of the sample:

Q=Kd 2

Q: The minimum sample weight Kg that must be taken to ensure representativeness of the sample.

d: particle size mm of the largest nugget in the sample.

K: coefficient related to the nature of the ore.

(1). The uniformity of the distribution of useful minerals in the ore, the more uneven the distribution, the greater the K value.

(2). The granularity of useful minerals in the ore, the coarser the particles, the larger the K value.

(3). The lower the useful mineral content, the greater the K value.

(4). The specific gravity of the useful mineral, the greater the specific gravity, the larger the K value.

(5). The smaller the allowable error, the larger the K value.

K value: Except for precious metals, most of them take values ​​from 0.02 to 0.5, most commonly 0.1 to 0.2.

2. Sampling method

It mainly introduces the sampling of the static material pile.

(1). Sampling of a bulk pile.

A. The skimming method (also called the digging method) is used to dig pits at certain locations on the surface of the pile, mainly influencing factors.

1). The density of the sampling network and the number of sampling points.

2). The amount of sampling per point.

3). The material group is evenly distributed along the thickness of the pile.

B: Exploratory well method: excavate the shallow well at a certain place in the pile, and then dilute a part of the material from the excavated material for sample.

(2) Sampling of powdered material pile:

A: The car or the pile is sampled and inserted with the probe.

Note: The layout should be even, but at least four.

The probe should be of sufficient length to reach the required depth.

The sampling amount per point is basically equal, and the bottom layer of the surface is taken.

B: Random sampling of the packet (bag sample)

Each group is a group, and each group is pumped one package and inserted.

3. Sample processing

A. Block material processing

Crushing → screening → mixing → shrinking → grinding test sample

Mixing method

Ring cone method

Rolling method

Method of grouping cones

Square method

Groove sampler

B: The powdery material can be directly mixed and reduced to obtain.

Note: A: The sample size is related to the particle size Q=Kd 2

B: Generally, the amount of the analytical sample is preferably 80 to 100 grams, and the particle size is less than 1/m.

C: Analyze the sample to meet the analysis requirements, and prepare the sample.

For the purpose of inspection, the material is preferably less than 200 mesh.

D: The sample should be dried. If the water to be measured should be measured before sampling.

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