Flotation and flotation process

Flotation beneficiation is a technique for sorting minerals and is a major method of mineral processing. The main principle is to make use of the difference in physical and chemical properties of the mineral surface to selectively attach one or a group of minerals in the ore to the bubble, to rise to the surface of the ore, and to separate the useful mineral from the gangue mineral from the surface. Because the sorting process must be carried out in the pulp, it is called floating ore dressing, referred to as flotation.

Flotation is a complex physical and chemical process completed in gas, liquid and solid three-phase systems. The essence is that hydrophobic and useful minerals adhere to the surface of the bubble, and the hydrophilic gangue minerals remain in the slurry, and they realize each other from the surface. Separation. The flotation process is completed in the flotation machine, which is a continuous process, which can be divided into the following four stages, as shown in Figure 1.

(1) Preparation of raw materials. Preparation of raw materials before flotation includes grinding, mixing, dosing, stirring, and the like. After grinding, the particle size of the raw material must meet certain requirements. The main purpose is to dissociate most of the useful minerals from the inlaid state. The other purpose is to enable the bubbles to carry the ore particles up. Generally, it needs to be ground to less than 0.2. Mm. Slurrying refers to the mixing of raw materials into pulp of suitable concentration. Various flotation agents will be added in the future to enhance the difference in the floatability of useful minerals and gangue minerals. The purpose of the agitation is to make the flotation agent and the surface of the ore particles fully effective.

(2) Stirring and aeration. The stirring aerator of the flotation machine is used for agitation and air is sucked in, and a special compressor device can also be provided to press the air in. The purpose is to make the ore particles in suspension, and at the same time produce a large number of suitable and relatively stable bubbles, causing the mineral particles to collide with the bubbles.

(3) Mineralization of bubbles. After acting on the flotation agent, the surface hydrophobic mineral particles can adhere to the bubbles and gradually rise to the surface of the slurry to form a mineralized foam. The surface hydrophilic mineral particles cannot adhere to the bubble surface and remain in the slurry. This is the most basic behavior of flotation separation of minerals.

(4) Scraping of mineralized foam. In order to maintain continuous production, the mineralized foam is discharged in time, and the scraper of the flotation machine scrapes it out. This product is called “foam concentrate. The product left in the slurry and then discharged is called “tailing mine”.

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