Collectors are typically polar collectors and non-polar collectors. The polar collector consists of a polar group that interacts with the surface of the mineral particles and a non-polar group that acts as a hydrophobic. When such collectors are adsorbed on the surface of the ore particles, their molecules or ions are oriented, the polar groups are oriented toward the surface of the mineral particles, and the non-polar groups are formed outward to form a hydrophobic membrane, thereby making the minerals floatable. Brass with pyrite, galena and other associated gold we used xanthate (xanthate) and alkyl dithio phosphate (black powder) as the collector. In recent years, new collectors have been developed, but the principle of collection is the same, but the collectors developed separately for a particular mineral are more selective.
After the mineral surface adheres to the collector, it only changes its hydrophilicity. Even if the hydrophobic mineral fine particles are sinking in the slurry, we need another agent to change it. The surface active molecules of the hydrophilic group and the hydrophobic group are adsorbed to the water-air interface to reduce the surface tension of the aqueous solution, so that the air filled in the water is easily dispersed into bubbles and stabilize the bubbles. The foaming agent and the collector are combined to adsorb on the surface of the mineral particles to float the ore particles. Common foaming agents in the gold selection process are pine oil (2# oil), methyl isobutyl methanol (MIBC), other complex alcohols (11# oil) and the like.
So, can we choose the collector and foaming agent? In the process of grinding and stirring, the gangue and mineral are inevitably surface-contaminated, and it is easy to be floated at the same time by the collector and foaming agent. It is difficult to separate. Or when gold is concentrated in chalcopyrite, galena, or in the form of monomers, we need to suppress other sulfide minerals with similar floatability. The former has universal inhibition, and the latter has inhibition. Targeted, for example, we use water glass to inhibit silica, the range of the amount can be larger, but the use of lime to inhibit pyrite, there is strict control of PH value.
Some ore is highly oxidized, or the surface is subject to more serious pollution (cyanide tailings). When it is difficult to adhere to the collector, we need to activate the slurry. The most common activator in gold dressing is sulfuric acid, but There is also a problem in the use of sulfuric acid, that is, in the acidic environment, xanthate is easily decomposed, thus losing the ability to capture, but the black drug can still maintain good stability. If the ore is mainly chalcopyrite, it can be considered to use only black drug. Collector, if it is mainly pyrite, must be re-pulped after activation.
The basic rock ore is soft, easy to mud in the grinding process, and enters the flotation operation. The muddy fine particles are easy to agglomerate. In the selected operation, the foam is sticky and difficult to disperse, resulting in the separation of minerals and gangue, which is difficult to obtain. High grade concentrates, for which we need to add dispersants to prevent fines from agglomerating. The most common dispersants are water glass, metaphosphate and so on.
Many medicines have multiple effects. For example, black medicine and ethyl thioacetate (Z-200) have both harvesting ability and foaming effect. Water glass has both inhibiting ability and dispersing effect; Restrictions, such as sulfuric acid will decompose xanthate, water glass will increase the pH value of the pulp, so the agent is particularly important in combination.
In addition, any medicine needs time, but it takes too long to contaminate the surface of the gangue, which makes it impossible to separate. Therefore, the addition point of the medicine is also very important. Sometimes, in order to make the medicine work better, we can even use black medicine and Lime is added to the mill.
Then we return the topic to the beginning. When our hands are covered with dust and form a small mud mass with the oil secreted by the body, it has good hydrophobicity, and the sodium fatty acid in soap has the characteristics of hydrophobic groups and hydrophilic groups. The hydrophobic group is combined with the oil and the hydrophilic group is dissolved in water, so that the oil is dispersed and forms an emulsion with water, and the dust is carried away from both hands. When stewed chicken soup, the floating foam is actually uncleaned and dirty, the animal's blood has a good agglomeration effect, and the animal oil is a collector of oxidized minerals, and at the same time has a foaming effect, when the water is boiled, The water vapor floats up, just like the process of aeration, so a foam is formed on the surface of the soup. The timely foaming can ensure that the soup color alcohol is transparent. As a mineralizer, have you thought about it?
As we said before, most of the selection plants often use joint processes in order to obtain better recovery rates, in order to make the process more complete.
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